Parenthood has become more of a shared burden between mothers and fathers, and it turns out postpartum depression might be one too.

A study in JAMA Psychiatry has found that new dads were at risk of depression after their child was born “if they felt stressed or were in poor health.” The condition was also linked to not being in a relationship with the child’s mother after the birth, as well as unemployment.

Read: Do You Have Depression or Dysthymia?

Although a pregnant woman’s hormones are fluctuating and her body is changing in a way that could contribute to depression, men also go through changes. “Expectant and new fathers also experience biological and ecological stressors, including changes to brain circuits, structure, and hormones, that can increase their risk of depression symptoms,” the study says. And that’s important because of the role a father’s mental health plays in a child’s development: “Paternal depression is associated with negative child outcomes, including emotional and behavioral problems.” Their mental health may also affect the mental health of the mother. Identifying which fathers are most likely to experience depression and figuring out whether to give them care before or after their child’s birth could make a difference.

The researchers analyzed health questionnaires from more than 3,500 men to draw their conclusions. Between the mother’s third trimester and nine months after birth, more than 200 of them showed symptoms of depression.

“There is no routine screening of women during pregnancy and none for fathers before or after the birth of their children, since they are not usually engaged in routine perinatal care,” study author Lisa Underwood, from the University of Auckland, said in a statement from that university. “Increasingly, we are becoming aware of the influence that fathers have on their children’s psychosocial and cognitive development. Given the potential for paternal depression to have direct and indirect effects on children, it is important that we recognise and treat symptoms among fathers early.”

Although there is still work to be done, scientists are slowly getting to the bottom of postpartum depression and what causes it. One recent study discovered that mothers were more likely to develop the condition the worse their labor pain was in the delivery room. What does that mean for dads, however? That depends — are sympathy pains real? It’s a matter of debate, but no matter the answer, the more information experts have about what contributes to the risk of postpartum depression, the closer they get to completely understanding its cause.

“Given that paternal depression can have direct or indirect effects on children, it is important to recognize and treat symptoms among fathers early, and the first step in doing that is arguably increasing awareness among fathers about increased risks,” the study says.

Source: Underwood L, Waldie KE, Peterson E, D’Souza S, Verbiest M, McDaid F, Morton S. Paternal Depression Symptoms During Pregnancy and After Childbirth Among Participants in the Growing Up in New Zealand Study. JAMA Psychiatry. 2017.

See also:

Broken Internal Clock Makes Depression Worse

Sunshine Is Treatment for Depression — Really