Consuming probiotics to improve your health and protect your immune system has gained quite a bit of traction in recent years, becoming similar to the “superfood” trends of kale and avocado. Plenty has been written about the health benefits of these good bacteria, including the fact they can improve mental health, combat allergies, and reduce your risk for diabetes.

But perhaps in spite of the hype, a new video out of Healthcare Triage examines whether probiotics really work — and what they’re useful for, based on scientific evidence.

When you eat yogurt, fermented cabbage (and other fermented foods), kombucha, and soy drinks that have live cultures of bacteria in them, the good bacteria move into your stomach and help prevent bad bacteria from taking over. Probiotics are especially useful after you’ve taken antibiotics and cleared out your entire gut microbiome, as it needs to be replenished eventually.

But here’s the ultimate question: Does going out of your way to take probiotic supplements, or eat probiotic-rich foods, every day make a difference in your overall health? There isn’t much research to support that notion, and it’s safe to assume that probiotics can be helpful for specific conditions, but only to an extent. Besides, not many studies have examined how probiotics move from supplements or yogurt into your stomach.

“A lot of probiotics are considered supplements and aren’t regulated,” the video states. “You can’t be sure what you’re getting. Even if the stuff is alive in yogurt, studies show that doesn’t necessarily mean that they get to your gut alive.”

The video also notes that perhaps we’re taking probiotics a little too far, and using it as a therapy or a medicine when it doesn’t need to be. Dr. William Bennett, a professor of pediatrics who worked on a study that examined the effect of probiotics on infant colic (when an otherwise healthy baby cries excessively for hours every few days), referred to probiotics as “a hammer in search of a nail.” Bennett’s study found that babies who were given probiotics didn’t fare any better than those that didn’t receive probiotics when it came to colic.