Even with pitching limits for youth baseball players, throwing injuries that resulted in surgery have seen a rise lately, occurring 16 times more often than 30 years ago, and researchers believe it's because parents and their kids just aren't listening.

Dr. Joseph Guettler, an orthopedic surgeon and sports medicine specialist with the Beaumont Health System in Royal Oak, Michigan, studied more than 750 pitchers between nine and 18 years old over the course of three years, according to HealthDay News.

He found that contrary to national guidelines, almost 13 percent of pitchers threw competitively for more than eight months each year, 40 percent pitched in a league that didn't recognize limits, about 57 percent pitched on back-to-back days, and 19 percent pitched more than one game in the same day. In addition to this, Guettler also found that almost one-third of pitchers threw for more than one team during the same season, one-third played only baseball, and 10 percent also played catcher on the same team. Catching requires just as much throwing as the pitcher - if they're not throwing the ball back to the pitcher, they're throwing it around the field during a play.

"It became very clear that dangerous pitching behavior is occurring among pitchers as young as Little League all the way through their high school years," Guettler said. "And, the blame doesn't usually lie with the leagues or coaches. Most were found to be adhering to nationally recognized guidelines for pitch limits and rest. It seems much of the blame lies with behavior of parents and their kids."

Right now, pitches are limited to the number of throws per game and rest would depend on the number of pitches thrown in each game. Eleven and 12-year-old players aren't supposed to throw more than 85 pitches a day, with limits also varying with age. Also, a pitcher who throws more than 61 in a game would need three days of rest before returning to the mound, while someone who throws between 41 and 60 pitches would need two days off.

Guettler listed a number of factors that can lead to arm pain and tiredness. They were:

  • Pitching for more than one team during the same season.
  • Pitching more than one game during the same day.
  • Pitching on back-to-back days.
  • Pitching in a league without pitch counts or playing year-round.
  • Throwing curve balls before high school.

Guettler said that by adhering to the "rule of ones," meaning one game a day, one day of pitching then rest, one position at a time, only one pitch before high school, and at least one season playing another organized sport, a young pitcher can reduce their chances of injury.