Many a person has undoubtedly mentioned the health benefits of red wine to their friends while grabbing a bottle or three from the store shelf. But the proof of red wine’s benefits, it seems, can be mixed, as a new Italian study found that the antioxidant-rich drink “does not have a substantial influence on inflammation, cardiovascular disease, cancer, or longevity.”

That’s the conclusion a group of researchers came to after observing the effects of the polyphenol antioxidant resveratrol on a group of almost 800 seniors, ages 65 and up. Resveratrol, which can be found in red grape skin, peanuts, cranberries, chocolate, and some Asiatic plant roots, has been studied tirelessly for its health benefits — and a reason to drink more, presumably. Studies have suggested that it can increase levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or the “good” cholesterol, while lowering levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), the “bad” cholesterol. And others have shown a link between drinking wine and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes.

The researchers looked at the incidence of disease and death among a large group of seniors living in the winemaking Chianti region of Italy. They assessed their diets and alcohol consumption, and tested urine samples for resveratrol metabolites every three years for nine years. At the nine-year follow-up, they found that 268 patients had died. Of the 629 patients who didn’t have heart disease at the beginning, 174 developed it nine years later. And of the 734 who didn’t have cancer at the start of the study, 34 developed it at the nine-year mark. They also found that, for the most part, those who had more resveratrol in their urine also had the highest incidences of cardiovascular disease and cancer.

Of course, this isn’t the first study to find that resveratrol has little influence on a person’s future health. Another study found that non-obese women who took resveratrol supplements (75 milligrams per day) over 12 weeks weren’t likely to see beneficial metabolic changes. That’s huge, considering that there’s only about one milligram of resveratrol in a glass of wine.

Essentially, it comes down to what you want to believe. With the current study, participants who had the most resveratrol in their urine, and who were also more likely to develop disease, were also the one smoking cigarettes the most. So, one could argue that the health risks of smoking factored into how they developed disease. Meanwhile, with all of the other studies supporting red wine’s health benefits, people who enjoy drinking red wine may be content knowing that what they’re drinking is good for them over the long term, even if it is a miniscule benefit.

Source: Semba R, Ferrucci L, Bartali B, et al. Resveratrol in Red Wine, Chocolate, Grapes Not Associated With Improved Health. JAMA Internal Medicine. 2014.